Chuang Wen Hsuan

大家好 我是Victoria

How’s everyone? I’m Victoria.

不管各位是不是常來聽演講 

I wonder if you often come to speeches.

每個人開口第一句話總是大家好

Everyone always starts with “how’s everyone?”

但是我從剛才走進來的過程中 

Yet, as I walked inside the room,

很明顯可以發現

obviously I found that

在場有一些朋友第一眼就告訴我 

some participants appeared

其實我今天過得並不是太好

not so well today in fact.

我身邊有越來越多的家人朋友去看身心科

More and more of my friends and family

went to mental health clinic.

後來我發現這些人有一些相似之處 

Later, I found these people share similarities.

他們要不是不曉得自己要什麼

Either they don’t know what they want

不然就是知道自己要什麼 

or know what they want,

卻不曉得如何得到它

but don’t know how to get it.

我們今天來這邊談成功 

We’re here to talk about success.

開始之前我想要先跟各位建立起一個觀念

Before we start, I’d like to give you an idea first.

那就是不要覺得說 

That is, don’t think about…

如果我說我想要成功 

…that I claim that I want to succeed

或是我需要成功 

or that I need success

那我就會變成一個太過貪心的人

makes me a greedy person.

千萬別這麼想 

Don’t ever think like that.

這個世界是越來越複雜了

The world is ever-complicating.

只有那些知道自己要什麼 

Only those who know what they want

並知道如何得到的人 

and how to get what they want,

也就是那些成功的人

that is, the successful individuals,

才有辦法維持自己在身心兩方面的平衡 

can maintain their balance of body and mind

也才有辦法省去掛號費跟醫藥費

while saving the fees for clinics and medicine.

好 那今天呢

Alright, today…

主辦單位幫我將演講的題目定成是

The topic the Organizer set for me is

魚尾獅是何時絕種的:21世紀成功敘事學

When Did the Merlion Become Extinct? 

The Narrative to Succeed in the 21st Century

很謝謝他們 

I thank them for that.

但其實今天更準確一點的來講

Yet, let’s talk more precisely about

應該要是21世紀的國家成功敘事學

the national success narratology in the 21st century.

為什麼是國家成功學而不是個人成功學呢

Why is it the national successology

instead of individual successology?

為什麼是成功敘事學而不是成功心理學呢

Why is it the success narratology

instead of success psychology?

我自己在十幾二十歲的時候 

When I was at my teens or twenties,

上個世紀的事了

it was of last century already.

我在那時候其實也非常風靡於成功學的書 

Back then, I was also a fan

for books about successology.

我買了很多

I bought many…

那些書會教你要積極、樂觀、向上、進取

…books that teach you to be active,

optimistic, aspiring, positive.

當我自己還是一個被管理的人時 

When I was an individual being managed,

這些書是有點幫助沒有錯

these books did help more or less.

但當我自己變成是管理人的人時

Yet, as I became the one that manage,

我就發現這些書真的派不上用場

I found these books not helping at all.

我們正處在什麼樣的年代呢?

What time are we in now?

每一天打開電視、翻開報紙 

When we turn on TV or browse newspaper every day,

都有不同的人以不同的理由上街抗議、陳情

different people take to the streets for different reasons.

這樣的世代告訴我們

Such era tells us

只管好自己是不夠的

it’s not enough to just manage yourself.

只管好自己是沒有辦法讓你成功的 

Managing only yourself won’t make you successful.

你還必須同時學會如何管理其他人

You need to learn how to manage others at the same time.

但管理好自己容易

However, to manage yourself is easy,

管理好其他人談何容易呢?

but to manage others is not that easy.

這是為什麼我們需要向國家來學習他們管理集體的方式

That’s why we ought to learn from countries

about how they manage a collective.

國家成功敘事學

The national narratology to succeed.

就是我自己在這十幾二十年裡跌跌撞撞的過程中

This is something over my bumpy course of 10, 20 years,

以亞洲四小龍作為範本 

with the Four Asian Tigers as the models,

所發明出來的成功法則

I invented as the methodology to succeed.

這套方法能夠教各位如何透過說故事的技術

This methodology will teach you how,

with the storytelling techniques,

來控管集體並得到你們想要的成功

to manage a collective and get the success you want.

現在台下有些朋友可能心裡有非常多的OS

Many friends down stage might grumble silently,

想說怎麼可能

thinking that how is it possible?

是這樣嗎?

Is that so?

我自己連用愛的小手都沒有辦法管好我一個孩子了

Even with my Little Loving Hand,

I could hardly manage my one kid.

我真的有辦法靠一張嘴 

Is it possible for me to talk my way through

靠話術就管好一群成年人嗎?

and manage a group of adults?

讓我用接下來這個證據來告訴各位

Let me share this proof with you.

如果各位今天能夠學得起來的話

If you can learn it today,

那這一切都是有可能的

everything is possible.

魚尾獅各位朋友都知道嗎?

Have you heard of the Merlion?

新加坡的魚尾獅 

The Merlion of Singapore.

不曉得的朋友 

Those who don’t know,

可以舉手讓我看見一下

raise your hand for me.

都知道

You all know it.

非常厲害 

That’s impressive.

剛才各位看到的那個影片

The video you just saw

是在2009年新加坡世界小姐選美比賽中

was in the Miss Singapore World 2009.

有個網路電視台問了其中幾位參賽者的片段

It’s a clip of several participants

interviewed by an online TV channel.

他們問了很多問題

They asked various question.

但是我覺得這個問題特別有趣 

Yet, I find this question particularly interesting.

其中第二位小姐的回答又特別具有啟發

The answer gave by the second lady is especially inspiring.

第二位小姐在回答魚尾獅是何時絕種的這個題目時呢 

When the second lady answered the question of

when did the Merlion become extinct.

她想了很久

She gave it a serious thought.

是1965嗎?

Is it 1965?

1965年對這位小姐來說特別重要

Was it 1965 especially significant to this lady,

所以她回答了這個年份嗎?

so she gave that year as her answer?

我想不是的 

I think not.

1965年是對新加坡來說特別重要的年份

1965 is an especially significant year to Singapore.

在這一年呢 他們被逐出馬來西亞聯邦 

In this year, it was expelled from the Federation of Malaysia.

也是他們被獨立的年份

It was also this year they became independent.

儘管這位小姐她沒有在歷史課上學到

Though this lady had never learned it in the history class,

魚尾獅其實是1964才被發明出來的符號

the Merlion is a symbol not invented until 1964.

因為不是真正存在的生物 

Therefore, it is not a real creature,

所以也沒有絕種不絕種的問題 

so there’s no extinction or not for it.

但是他硬是記下了1965

Nevertheless, it marked the year 1965 anyway

能夠讓自己的國民

for its nationals,

在腦中一片空白時 

when drawing a blank,

仍然回答出建國年份

to recall the year of independence, nevertheless.

這就是新加坡他們善用國家成功敘事學的結果了

That’s the result of Singapore

leveraging their national success narratology.

接下來 

Next…

我會將國家成功敘事學分成環環相扣的四個點來談

I’ll share the national success narratology

in four interlocking points.

簡單的故事(simple story)

Simple story,

激情的故事(affective story)

affective story,

有病的故事(infectious story)

infectious story,

以及民主的故事(democratic story)

and democratic story.

雖然我已經講過這個題目無數次

Although I’ve spoken on this topic countless times,

但有時候想一想

when I came to think of it at times,

要來講成功學還是會有點汗顏 

I found myself a bit embarrassed in talking on successology.

因為好比

It’s like…

比起這位小帥哥 我的

Compared to this handsome lad,

家世背景完全幫不上我的忙 

my family background was not of use.

或者說比起這位非常有氣質的大姐

Or, compared to this lady with quality temperament,

我如果要成功的話實在是學歷上太難看了點

it’s a bit shameful for me to claim success academically.

更別說比起這位一看就比我更適合來臺上講成功學的大哥了 

Not to mention this gent appearing more suitable

than I am to talk on successology on stage.

我要成功的話打從一開始就生錯了性別

If I were to succeed,

I was born with a wrong sex right from the start.

那我到底何德何能 

So, what qualified me

今天還是站在各位的前面 

to stand before you today anyway

跟各位講成功學呢?

to talk on successology?

後來我就想到了 

Then, it occurred to me that

正因為我是輸在起跑點的人

it was precisely that I lost at the starting point

所以如果我能透過國家成功敘事學來翻身的話 

and that if I can alter my fate

with the national success narratology,

我相信對各位朋友也一定會有幫助的

I’m sure it will be helpful to you as well.

之所以我會選擇亞洲四小龍 

Why I chose the Four Asian Tigers

而不是像

instead of…

日本、德國或美國這些強權國家來當範本 

the great powers like Japan, Germany, or USA

其實也是基於一樣的理由

was based on the same ground.

我有看過各位朋友的報名表單

I’ve browsed the list of registered participants.



影像文字內容翻譯:


以下達成「成功」的條件中,您認為自己並不具備的有?(可複選)

Among the following qualities to succeed,

which one(s) do you think you don’t have? (Optional)

個人能力

Personal ability.

個人魅力

Personal charisma.

正確性別

The right sex.

家世背景

Family background.

優勢國籍

Dominant nationality.

努力不懈

Diligence.

正面心態

A positive mindset.

廣闊人脈

Good networks.

一支嘴胡蕊蕊

Eloquence.

成功自己定義

Others defined by yourself.



在這個要拿到成功必須具備的選項

Of these qualities to succeed,

我們可以看到個人能力很多

we can see plenty of personal ability,

廣闊人脈也必須很多 

and many good networks,

個人魅力很多 

and many personal charisma.

但是覺得自己不具備的選項裡面呢 

What about the qualities people consider lack of?

最高的是誰啊

What gets the most votes?

最高的是家世背景 

It’s family background,

接著是一隻嘴胡蕊蕊 

followed by eloquence.

不用擔心 

Worry not.

我們今天在這裡不是就要學這個嗎

We’re here to learn this, right?

然後接下來是優勢國籍 

Then, it’s followed by dominant nationality

接下來是廣闊人脈 

and then good networks.

其實如果我們仔細想會發現

If we think it through,

亞洲四小龍和我們很像

we’ll find the Four Asian Tigers are like us.



臺灣、南韓、新加坡跟香港

Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong

在1960到1990年間 

in the duration between 1960 and 1990,

因為它們非常出色的經濟表現

thanks to their outstanding economic performances,

所以得到了亞洲四小龍的美譽 

they were hailed as the Four Asian Tigers.

但其實它們和我們差不多

Yet, they were pretty much like us.

他們在人種上不具優勢 在資源上不具優勢 

They were not advantageous in terms of race, resources,

在國際關係上也不具優勢

nor international relations.

如果這樣的小國家

If such small countries

可以透過某種有效、有用的說故事技術

could utilize some effective, useful storytelling techniques

來協助自己翻身的話

to alter their fates,

那我們也當然可以從中學到什麼

we can surely learn something out of it.

正因為今天要談的是有用有效的說故事技術 

Now that we’re going to talk about effective,

useful storytelling techniques,

所以各位朋友在這裡要調整一下自己的mind set

I want you to adjust your mindset today.



今天的說故事將和文學無關 

The storytelling today is not about literature.

而是和政治學、經濟學、心理學更有關

It’s more about politics, economics, and psychology.

接下來就讓我們進入國家成功敘事學的第一點 

Now, let’s dive into the first point of

the national narratology to succeed.

簡單的故事

Simple story.

所有人都知道這個世界很複雜

Everyone knows the world is complicated,

但也所有人都喜歡將世界簡化來理解

while preferring to simplify the world for comprehension.

面對故事時也是一樣的 

It’s the same with stories.

我們大家都喜歡將很複雜的、

We all like to simplify events

不一定有因果關係的事件 

not necessarily with causal relationships to each other

簡化為有明確開始及結束的故事

into a story with a clear start and end.

簡單故事的好處是讓聽眾們在情緒上 

The benefit of a simple story is that audience

可以更快速的受感染

can be infected faster emotively,

另外一方面 

while it is much easier to spread the words.

則是讓流通上可以更加的簡便

雖然說故事的組成可以有無限多種

Though there are infinite combinations of stories,

但是不管是

either the scholars in psychoanalysis

精神分析的學者 

還是比較神話的學者都會告訴我們 

or those in comparative mythology will tell us

事實上人們喜歡的故事模型很單一

that in fact people are drawn to a singular story model.

其中最受歡迎的就是各位現在看到這個

The most popular one is what you see now

坎伯所整理出來的英雄旅程 

the Hero’s Journey proposed by Campbell,

或者說單一神話的模型

also known as the monomyth model.

在這個線性、環狀的模型中 

In this linear circumplex model,

分成了三幕

the journey is divided into three acts.

我們的英雄原本處在原點 

Our hero starts out at the starting point.

就是那個背著小背包的小可愛 

That’s the cutie with a little backpack there.

那從第一幕起程之後

After the first act, Departure,

到達了第二幕的啟蒙階段

the hero arrives at the second act, Initiation.

第二幕的啟蒙階段 

In the Initiation of the second act,

他會遇到了試煉、盟友以及敵人

the hero encounters tests, allies and enemies

並在第三幕回歸 

Then, the Return of the hero in the third act.

回到原點之後 

After returning to the status quo,

變成更好的自己

the hero becomes a better version of himself/herself.

那我們的亞洲四小龍會怎麼使用這種模式來說故事呢?

So, how did our Four Asian Tigers

employ such model for storytelling?

從前從前 

Once upon a time,

有四位英雄誕生在這世界的邊陲之處

four heroes were born at the edges of the world.

他們出生的地方好荒涼

They were born into desolation.

什麼都沒有 

They had nothing.

又很偏僻 

They were quite remote.

但是他們仍然非常的努力 

But, they worked very hard.

而且他們的資質很好

And, they were talented.

在引路人的帶領之下

Through the guides’ help,

他們終於躍上了世界的大舞臺

they managed to stand on the grand stage of the world.

但馬上他們就遇到了非常多的問題

However, they faced lots of issues right away.

國內的共產黨和國外的殖民勢力都讓英雄覺得很辛苦

The communists within and the colonial powers without

tormented the heroes.

但無論如何

Even so,

英雄仍然克服了萬難

the heroes overcame obstacles, nonetheless,

變成更好的、更民主的、更有錢的版本

and became better, more democratic,

and richer versions of themselves.

但是重點就來了

But, here’s a catch.

在我們學習亞洲四小龍用單一神話的模型來說故事時 

When we learn the Four Asian Tigers’ storytelling

using the monomyth model,

有件事情非常重要

one thing is very important.

那就是千萬不能讓英雄回到原點 

That is, never return the hero to the status quo.

為什麼不能讓英雄回到原點呢?

Why can’t we return the hero to the status quo?

為什麼不能讓故事真正的結束呢?

Why can’t we put an end to the story at all?

這裡就要牽扯到國家成功敘事的第二點

That’s where the second point of

the national narratology to succeed is involved.

激情的故事

Affective story.

激情的故事指的並不是腥羶色的故事 

An affective story refers not to a sensational story,

或是撒狗血的故事 

nor is it a cliché story.

而是能夠激起特定情緒的故事

It’s a story that arouses specific emotions.

1970年代開始一些心理人類學家發現

Since the early 1970s,

some psychological anthropologists found that

當我們還是小baby的時候 

when we are still little babies,

我們的情緒是與生俱來的沒有錯

our emotions are indeed innate.

但當我們漸漸的長大成人之後 

Yet, as we grow into adulthood,

情緒變成是一半先天一半後天的

our emotions are half innate and half acquired.

也就是說 

In other words,

我們成年人的情緒其實是可以學習、

the emotions of adults can actually be learned

也是可以植入的

and be planted.

我們學習國家成功敘事學的人

We the pupils of the national narratology to succeed

就是要抓准這一點 

have to leverage this very trait,

通過故事來影響聽眾的情緒

affecting audience’s emotions via stories

並讓情緒影響他們的行動

and allowing emotions to affect their actions.

在激情的故事中

In an affective story,

我們需要激情的情緒總共有兩種

the emotions we aim to affect are two.

第一種是興奮

One is excitement.

第二種則是焦慮

The other is anxiety.

但是我想要先從恐懼開始談起

But, I want to start with fear.

恐懼是我們作為生物最原始的情緒之一

Fear is one of our most primitive emotions as a creature.

當意識到威脅的存在 

When sensing the presence of a threat,

我們腦中的杏仁核就會釋放出神經傳導物質

The amygdala in our brain releases neurotransmitters

讓我判斷在這個瞬間我們到底要戰鬥

for us to determine whether to fight or flight.

還是逃跑

雖然說恐懼和焦慮感覺蠻像的 

Even though fear is similar to anxiety,

但是有學者為這兩種情緒作出了區別

scholars made distinction between the two emotions.



他們發現 

They found that

恐懼是在危險很近、很明確的時候

fear emerges when danger is at close and clear,

焦慮則是在威脅比較遠、比較不明確的時候

whereas anxiety rises when threat

is relatively remote and unclear.

所以這兩種情緒 

So, these two emotions

它們的差別就是在威脅到底是距離我們近還是遠

are different in the distance of a threat relative to us.

但無論如何 

Anyways…

這兩種情緒都和我們作為動物的求生本能有關

These two emotions are associated

with our animal instinct for survival.

也所以都能激起我們的能動性 

Both can bring out our activation.

這件事情非常重要 

This is very important.

所以我們必須留下這種聽起來好像有點負面的情緒

So, we have to leave some emotions

appearing to be negative somehow.

那為什麼會說 

Then, why will we say

在激情的故事中 

in an affective story,

我需要激起的是興奮和焦慮呢?

we ought to arouse excitement and anxiety?

2014年

In 2014,

哈佛研究團隊在他們研究中發現 

a Harvard research team found in their studies that

事實上興奮和焦慮會激起的生理反應差不多

the physiological reactions that excitement

and anxiety arouse are in fact similar

所以這兩種情緒可以說是可以互相轉換的、

So, we can also say these two

emotions are interchangeable

也是自定義的

and customizable.

我們說故事的人 

We the storytellers

就是要透過說故事的技術 

employ the storytelling techniques

讓聽眾處在又興奮又焦慮的狀態

to put audience in a state

that are both exciting and anxious.

這裡就要回到前面了 

This brings us back to the previous point.

為什麼會說不能讓英雄回到原點

Why we can’t return the hero to the status quo?

只有讓英雄停在原點的前一步 

Only when the hero stops at one step before the starting point.

只有拒絕讓故事真正的結束

Only when we refuse a true ending to the story,

聽眾才會有一種好像永遠幸福快樂的日子就要到了

can the audience have the sense that

the days of happy ever after is near,

但怎麼好像前面遇到那個壞巫婆、大壞蛋還沒有死透

while the evil witch, or the bad guy,

we encountered previously is not finished yet.

在這種狀態下 

Under such circumstances,

聽眾就會信服於說故事者的權威 

the audience will submit themselves to storyteller’s authority

並且還是保持他們的能動性

and maintain their activation.

在這個情緒環狀模型中 

In this circumplex model of emotion,

各位可以看到 

we can see that

焦慮以及興奮

both anxious and excited

都是處在有高度能動性的那邊

are on the side of high activation.

這就是我們所需要的 

That’s what we need.

那我們可以想想看

We can try to

比較國家說故事的方式

compared the storytelling by a country

和好比小吃店說故事的方式好了

with that of a diner for instance.

我們去吃飯的時候常常走進店裡牆上就會有大圖輸出 

When we go to a diner,

we often see a large printout on the wall,

會說這家店的創業由來

telling us the history of this diner from scratch.

老闆原本非常的辛苦啊

The owner was in a tough situation,

從路邊攤開始做起

starting out as a vendor by the street.

然後經歷了經濟的大衰退 

He then experienced the economic recession.

即使非常辛苦 

Despite the hardship,

還是用真材實料來服務顧客 

the owner served his customers with quality dishes still.

最後一段

Finally,

第三代老闆辭去新竹科學園區的高薪 

the third generation gave up

his decent salary at the Hsinchu Science Park

回到家裡來繼承家業 

to return home for the family business.

決定將這傳統的口味延續下去

He’s determined to carry on the traditional flavor.

各位有沒有發現在小吃店的故事中 

Have you noticed that in the diner’s story,

它讓故事結束了

it puts an end to the story.

它讓英雄回到原點了

It returns the hero back to the status quo.

在這種狀態之下 

Under such circumstances,

不管是聽故事的人還是說故事的人 

either the listeners or the teller of the story

都再也失去能動性了

no longer have activation for themselves.

那相較之下國家會怎麼說故事呢?

In contrast, how does a country tell its story?

這令人驚豔的一切 And amazing as it seems

And amazing as it seems,

都是由做夢開始的it all started with a dream

it all started with a dream.

但是夢境還沒有完成 But the dreaming isn’t done

But the dreaming isn’t done.

因為最好的還沒有來臨 ‘Cos the best is yet to come

‘Cos the best is yet to come.

我前面說了非常多關於我自己然後關於亞洲四小龍出身不好的事情

Previously, I’ve said much about myself

and the poor backgrounds of the Four Asian Tigers.

有些朋友可能會覺得出身不好有什麼關係 

Some people might consider a poor background fine.

出身不好努力一點就好了呀 

Despite a poor background, let’s work harder, right?

出身不好讓實力說話不就好了嗎?

Let your strength speak for you, right?

我原本也是這麼想的 

I thought so, too.

跟各位說個故事

Let me tell you a story.

我後來有機會當上了一間跨國公司的高階主管

I had a chance to be

an executive of a transnational company.

然後在那時候 

At that time,

我當然覺得說 

I thought to myself of course

這機會實在是太難得了 

it’s a rare opportunity

我必須要好好把握 

that I should seize it in my hand.

這麼難得 

So rare

我一定要讓

that I had to

我身為一個臺灣女性的機會能夠讓大家看到

prove that to everyone as a Taiwanese female.

然後我非常努力啦

So, I worked very hard.

但是那時候另外一個同位階的同事他是白人

Nevertheless, my colleague at the same level.

He was a Caucasian.

他是男人 他還是美國人

He was a man and an American.

我就發現真的很不公平 

I found that it was truly unfair.

我們兩個就算做了一樣的事情 

For the same thing we did,

下面的人還是會以雙重標準來說我們

Our subordinates would still judge us with double standard.

好比假設他下了一個決策好了 

Let’s say he made a decision.

下面的人就會覺得說 

The subordinates would say…

哇你很有領導風範

Wow, you’re a true leader.

但我下了一個決策 

Yet, if it’s me that made the decision.

下面人就會說我很跋扈很專制

The subordinates would say I’m bossy and autocratic.

但如果他問下面人說

But, if he asked the subordinates

這件事情你有什麼看法?

what do you think of it?

他們就會覺得你很棒、很民主 

They would think of him as nice and democratic.

但要是是我問的這件事情

However, if that was me asking the same question,

下面人就會說

the subordinates would say

你到底知不知道你自己要什麼

do you really know what you want or not?

我就發現正因為我出身不好

I found that it was precisely due to my poor background

下面的人總是想方設法的要把我拉下來

that the subordinates often wanted

to pull me down anyhow

因為他們會覺得

because they thought that

我的能力比你還好 

they were more capable than I was

你能做的事情你能坐的位置我也上得去

and that they could do what I did and be where I was. 

正是這樣的原因 

For that very reason,

我必須比那位白人男性將權力抓得更緊

I had to seize power tighter than the Caucasian male

同時也要比他更能掌握民意

while understanding better the public opinion than he did.

威權和民主感覺是兩個差異非常大的字對不對?

Authoritarianism and democracy

are two words vastly distinct from each other, right?

但是如果我們觀察亞洲四小龍 

However, if we observe the Four Asian Tigers,

我們就可以發現

we could see in them actually

其實在它們身上

強人主政、經濟奇跡以及民主化

strongman leadership, economic miracle, 

and democratization

約莫是串在一起同時發生的

happen about the same time.

它們就向我們展示了 

They demonstrated for us that

假使你能好好的解釋威權、民主以及經濟之間的關係 

if you manage to explain the relationship between

authority, democracy, and economy,

你就能扭轉自己的劣勢

you can turn the tide to your advantage

並且能夠阻止下面的人反抗

and prevent your subordinates’ revolt.

蔣經國有沒有毀了不少人?

Did CHIANG Ching-kuo destroy many individuals?

台灣民眾有沒有懷念蔣經國?

Do the people in Taiwan miss Chiang Ching-kuo?

朴正熙有沒有毀了不少人?

Did PARK Chung-hee destroy many individuals?

南韓民眾有沒有懷念朴正熙?

Do the people in South Korea miss Park Chung-hee?

李光耀有沒有毀了不少人?

Did LEE Kuan Yew destroy many individuals?

新加坡民眾有沒有懷念李光耀?

Do the people in Singapore miss Lee Kuan Yew? 

香港的問題太有意思

The issue with Hong Kong is rather interesting.

所以我們到最後會當成實際演練來談

We shall leave it to the end for exercise.

能夠讓自己的國民一直到今天

They could make their citizenry, even to date,

都還是那麼的懷念強人主政的時代 

miss the days of strongman politics.

這也正是亞洲四小龍 

That’s exactly yet another proof of Four Asian Tigers

它們善用國家成功敘事學的另外一項證據

successfully leveraged the national narratology to succeed.

從前面我們知道了

Previously, we learned that

簡單的故事以及激情的故事能夠讓聽眾對於故事 

the simple story and affective story can arouse audience’s

以及故事背後的價值觀有非常大的同理心

sympathy for the stories and the values behind the scenes

並且能夠維持他們的能動性 

while maintain their activation.

但只有這兩點的話沒有辦法解決人們喜歡反抗的事實

However, these two can’t account for

the fact of people’s inclination for rebellion.

這是為什麼我們會需要接下來的第三點和第四點

That’s why we need the third and fourth points as follows.

有病的故事以及民主的故事來協助我們掌控權力

The infectious story

and democratic story help us seize power.

有病的故事會告訴我們

The infectious story tells us

故事內容的真假重要嗎?

that does the truthfulness of a story matter?

不重要

No.

故事流通的規模才重要

It’s the scale of a story’s circulation that counts.

能夠變成像是新冠肺炎這樣大型傳染病的故事 

A story as prevalent as COVID-19 epidemic

就會變成真的故事了

can turn into a true story.

2013年得到諾貝爾經濟學獎的羅伯希勒 

the laureate of the 2013 Nobel Prize

in Economic Sciences, Robert Shiller,

在他去年出的一本叫做

published a book last year titled

《敘事經濟學》的書中指出

Narrative Economics, in which he suggested

儘管 

even though

在好比人類學、歷史學、政治學、心理學及社會學中

in anthropology, history, politics, psychology, and sociology,

敘事這個字越來越受矚目

the term “narrative” is receiving more and more attention,

但是在經濟學和金融學則不是這樣

it is not the case in economics and finance.

這邊的學者們 

The scholars in those fields

他們仍然相信數字 

still believe in number,

並且忽略了敘事、故事對人類行為的影響

but ignore the influences of

narrative and story on human behaviors.

他們會覺得我們是先看盤再決定要買哪一隻股票的

They think we will check out the market

before deciding which company’s stock to buy.

當殊不知 

What they don’t know is that

我們只不過是聽了某一個在銀行上班的朋友一句說 

all we have is a word from a friend working in a bank

我身邊我手上的大顧客啊 

that the huge clients around me and of mine

都是買這一支

are buying this company

買了穩賺的

and that it’s a guarantee to a steady profit.

講白話一點 

In plain words,

他們會覺得只有數字才是理性的

they believe that only number is rational

只有理性的東西才可以當成證據 

and that only rational thing can serve as evidence.

但他們不瞭解

But they fail to see that

他們所認為理性的證據

beneath the rational evidence in their eyes

背後只不過是一大堆不理性的聽說而已

are nothing more than piles of irrational hearsay.

這就是為什麼流行疾病的曲線

That’s why the pattern of epidemic

跟流行經濟敘事的曲線會長得這麼像

resembles to that of the popular economic narrative.

也是為什麼他們永遠無法準確的預測經濟大事件的原因 

That’s also why they always fail to

accurately predict the major economic events,

不管是大起或是大落都好

be that a surge or a plunge.

亞洲四小龍他們非常成功的讓兩個故事變成是超級傳染病

The Four Asian Tigers successfully turned

two stories into super epidemics.

第一個故事是經濟奇跡 

One is economic miracle

第二個故事則是個人成功學

The other is individual successology.

在場有些年輕朋友 

Some young friends here

有一段對話可能在你們家會常常發生 

might experience such dialogue at your home.

要選舉了

When it comes to elections,

然後你跟你家的父母因為要選誰的事情大吵

you and your parents will argue

over whom you should vote for.



你家父母覺得吵不過你了 

When your parents can’t argue with you,

他們放出了大絕說 

they will give the ultimatum,

你怎麼可以對你父母那麼沒禮貌

saying that how can you be so rude with your parents.

然後你就也覺得很生氣 

And, you will get angry as well,

你就回了他們一句說 

replying to them

你們那時候沒有自由

you didn’t have freedom back then.

父母冷冷的回你 

Your parents reply coldly

至少我們那時經濟很好

at least our economy was good then.

然後你就回不了話了 

Then, you’re silenced

因為他們說的好像也有道理

because what they say makes sense somehow.

儘管這兩句話牛頭不對馬嘴 

Even though the two arguments are incongruous.

因為一邊在講自由、一邊在講錢

One talks about freedom; the other talks about money.

至少我們那時經濟很好 

“At least our economy was good then”

背後的引伸意就是人人有機會

implies that everyone got their opportunity.

人人有機會 

Every gets their opportunity

也正是個人成功學的論述基礎

is the very narrative basis of individual successology.

現在的人還是會那麼懷念以前的日子 

The people today still miss the old days

就是因為強人的時代給人一種

because the era of strongman gave people a sense that

好像只要你努力、

as long as you worked hard,

好像只要你想要 

as long as you wanted something,

你就能主動達成成功的印象

you would succeed. 

我爸他原本只是一間超級小的棉被店的學徒

My father used to be

an apprentice at a super small quilt shop.

他靠自己的力量變成超大紡織廠的廠長

He worked his way up 

and became a manager for an ultra-big textile factory.

蔣經國他靠自己的力量 

Chiang Ching-kuo worked his way up

就用十大建設把臺灣帶起來

and brought Taiwan up with his Ten Major Construction Projects.

朴正熙他靠自己的力量 

Park Chung-hee worked his way up

就用漢江奇跡把南韓帶起來

and brought South Korea up with his Miracle on the Han River.

在這樣的故事中

In stories like these,

為了讓故事的傳播可以更加的快

to accelerate the dissemination of stories,

所以他們就會被簡化

they would be simplified.

太過複雜的國際局勢就會被略而不談 

The too complicated international contexts would be omitted.

好比冷戰的問題 

Like the issues with the Cold War,

好比美國在背後的操作 

or the U.S. pulling strings behind the scenes.

都不會談

These would not be touched upon.

所有的成就 

All the achievements

所有的成功 

and all the successes

都是強人以一人之力完成的

were accomplished solely by the strongmen.

所以我們可以這樣理解

So, we can see it that way

事實上在經濟奇跡的年代 

that the era of economic miracle

也正是個人成功學的傳染高峰

also marks the pinnacle of individual successology.

而在裡面

Here.

強人

The strongman.

政治強人也正是超級傳播者

The political strongman is also a super spreader.

只不過這些超級傳播者在傳播故事時 

Yet, it’s just that when the super spreaders spread the stories,

會加入一條但書

there would be a catch.

人人有機會 

Everyone has their opportunity.

是的

Yes.

但是

But…

只有在我主政的狀態下 

But, only when I stay in power

你們才有機會

that you have your opportunities.

在這裡有病的故事就會疊合上激情的故事

Here, the infectious story is superimposed

with the affective story.

聽眾一方面會被個人成功學搞得非常的興奮 

On one hand, the audience gets extremely excited

by the individual successology.

但另外一方面又會被機會有可能喪失搞得非常的焦慮

On the other, they feel extremely anxious

owing to the potential loss of opportunity.

在這種雙重的處境下

Situated in the dual circumstances,

聽眾他們會非常努力的認真工作 

the audience will work very hard.

但是他們不會想要反抗

But, they won’t want to revolt.

我們就可以得到一群又積極又保守的下屬

So, we get a group of active yet conservative subordinates.

亞洲四小龍最常被提起的就是經濟奇跡

The most common thing associated with

the Four Asian Tiger is their economic miracles.

但是有一件事情是對於我們在學國家成功敘事學的人來說更重要的 

Nevertheless, one thing matters the most

for us the pupil of the national narratology to succeed

那就是民主奇跡

is the democratic miracle.

民主奇跡中的這個民主 

The democratic in the democratic miracle

並不是普世的定義 

follows not the universal definition.

而是亞洲在地化的人民作主的重新定義

Instead, it’s been redefined locally in Asia

as in charge by the people.

我們定義的民還是民 

The “people” we define remains as the people.

但我們定義的主是我來替你做主

The “in charge by” in our definition is by me for you.

我們要管理下屬的時候 

When we manage our subordinates,

最好的方式不是用威脅的 

the best practice is not through intimidation.

威脅非常沒效

Intimidation is rather useless.

最好的方式

The best practice

是想辦法讓他們主動的交出自己的權力

is to find a way for them

to surrender their power willingly,

不管他們說服自己放棄自由、平等的理由是錢、是願景、或是什麼的

persuading them to give up freedom or equality

either for money, vision, or anything else.

政治學家杭廷頓將執政的合法性分成兩種

The political scientist Huntington

divided regime legitimacy in two.

一種是程序合法性 

One is procedural legitimacy.

一種是績效合法性

The other is performance legitimacy.

程序合法性和規則的訂定有關

The procedural legitimacy is associated with rule stipulation.

這是一種只會讓反抗更多 

This is a way that results in an increased resistance

而不會更少的方式 

instead of decreased resistance.

我們千萬不要去碰它

We should never touch that.

績效合法性則是亞洲四小龍會使用的方式 

The performance legitimacy is the way

the Asian Tigers employed.

也是我們要學習的方式 

That’s also the way we ought to learn.

但在這裡呢

But here.

我自己會喜歡將績效合法性中的performance

I prefer to interpret the “performance” in performance legitimacy

直接翻譯成表演

into theatric performance.

將績效合法性直接翻譯成表演合法性

To interpret it as theatric performance

可以讓我們更直接的進入國家成功敘事學的精髓

allows us a better access to the essence

of the national narratology to succeed.

那就是只要你劇本寫的好 

That means as long as you have a good script,

只要演員演的好 

good performances by actors,

場面調度做得好 

well-managed mise-en-scene,

民就會主動的讓你做主了

the people will automatically put you in charge.

而且因為他們是主動讓你做主的 

Now that it’s them that put you in charge,

所以就不會有太多的意見

there won’t be much dissidence.

在我們為民作主的過程中要注意到 

As we take in charge for the people, know that

看我們表演的人會同時來自內部以及外部

the people watching our performance

come from both internally and externally.

對外時

Externally,

透過亞洲四小龍們可以瞭解

through the Four Asian Tigers, we learn that

它們非常的強調自己對於全球分工、

they highlight their roles in the global division of labor

對於國際政治的不可或缺 

and their indispensable roles in the international politics.

所以就能讓強權之間可以互相牽制

This way, they allow the powers to put each other in check

自己作為小國就能在這夾縫中生存下來

while they survive in between as smaller countries.

對內時

Internally,

除了用剛才提到的個人成功學來養出一群又積極又保守的民眾之外 

Besides the cultivation of a group of active yet conservative people

by means of the individual successology,

更重要一點就是

the more important key is…

教育

Education.

教育除了養出維持經濟表現的人才 

Aside from educating talent to maintain economic performances

更重要的是養出我們領導人所需要的價值觀

it’s more importantly to cultivate the values leaders need.

當你準備好一個故事要傳播出去 

When you have a story to spread,

要讓它變成超級大的傳染病 

to make it an ultra epidemic,

你會怎麼做?

what will you do?

你會寫小說嗎? 

Will you write a novel?

會做劇場嗎? 

Will you put it in a theater?

還是會做展覽呢?

Or an exhibition?

我想都不是 

I think neither.

比較好的方式

The better way is

是「我跟你講你不要跟別人講」的八卦 

the “I tell you, but tell no others” gossip

以及辦學

and education.

這件事情你知我知 

This is something you know, and I know

霍布斯邦也知 

and Hobsbawm knows.

霍布斯邦不就說了嗎 ?

Hobsbawm once said that

學校教育就是建國最有利的武器

school education is the best weapon for nation-building.

所以這也是為什麼有學者會發現

That is why scholars have found that

事實上亞洲四小龍他們從中央開始費心規劃的

in fact, at the cores of the Four Asian Tigers, 

what they worked hard in

不只有經濟政策而已 

were the policies not just for economy,

還包括了教育政策

but also for education.

它們的課堂中的非常強調道德教育以及社會教育 

In their classrooms, 

moral education and social education are highly stressed

那現在

And now…

就讓我們用一個簡單的隨堂考 

Let’s have a simple quiz

來讓各位想要成功的朋友瞭解一下自己道德的狀況是怎麼樣

to allow you aiming for success to see your moral status.

這些題目都是來自1980年代臺北市各個國民小學的道德考卷

These questions came from the test paper

distributed in all elementary schools in Taipei City in the 1980s.

題目總共五題 

There are five questions in total.

每題20分 

Each question rewards 20 points

總分100分 

with 100 points as the full score.

每題問完之後我就會公佈正確答案

After each question, I will announce the right answer.

那希望各位朋友能夠記下自己得了多少分

I want you to memorize how many points you get.

在所有的問題結束之後 

After all the questions,

我會想知道今天在場朋友們得分的狀況是怎麼樣

I will check the scores of the participants today.

好那我們現在就開始

Alright, let’s start.

第一題 

The first question.

生物的進化是由於互助 

The evolution of creatures is driven by mutual benefit;

社會的進化則是由於競爭 

the evolution of society is by competition.

覺得正確的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it is true.

是非題 

True or false.

非常簡單 

Very simple.

我想大家都寫了一輩子的是非題 

I think we’ve answered true-or-false questions all our lives.

覺得正確的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it is true.

好有人舉手了

Alright. I see some hands.

大家都不要覺得說要是我錯了怎麼辦?

Don’t worry about what if I’m wrong.

要說我零分怎麼辦?

What if I got zero?

大家要有勇氣面對這件事情

You should be brave enough to face it.

這是我們今天在這裡學的第一件事情

It’s the first thing we are here to learn.

那覺得錯誤的請舉手 

Raise your hand if you think it is false.

很好 

That’s nice.

答案是

The answer is…

錯的 

…false.

非常好 

Very good.

繼續保持下去 

Let’s keep up the good work.

第二題 

The second question.

女生的成長發育期比男生慢

Girls grow slower than boys,

性格也多趨於文靜、溫柔而且細心 

while being quieter, tenderer, and more thoughtful.

覺得正確的請舉手 

Raise your hand if you think it is true.

覺得不正確的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it is false.

今天我們這一場的朋友 

The friends here today

大家都很厲害 

are all quite impressive.

好繼續 

Carry on.

接下來 

Next.

大家要記得自己的得分好嗎?

Please remember your points, OK?

第三題 

The third question.

朋友間會互相影響 

Friends will influence each other

發生感染性作用 

and are contagious.

有病的故事

The infectious story.

所以我們的交朋友就要謹慎選擇 

So, be mindful of the friends you make.

覺得對的請舉手 

Raise your hand if you think it is true.

覺得不對的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it is false.

很好 

Nice.

都有 

Both.

我們的終於出現了歧見了 

We have disagreement at last.

答案是對的 

The answer is true.

第四題

The fourth question.

國家遭受敵人的侵略時 

When the country is under enemy’s attack,

能夠憤起殺敵 

rising up to fight the enemy

是勇敢愛國的表現 

is a brave and patriotic act.

覺得對的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it is true.

很好很好

Good, good.

覺得不對的請舉手 

Raise your hand if you think it is false.

太殘忍了 

That’s brutal.

都有 

Both.

這次基本上是一半一半 

It’s essentially a tie this time.

那我們來看答案

Let’s check the answer.

答案是對的 

The answer is true.

1980年代

In the 1980s.

最後一題很難、非常難 

The last question is exceedingly difficult.

是選擇題 

It’s a multiple-choice question

有四個選項

with four options.

古往今來 

Throughout the history,

真正的忠臣皆是出於

the true loyal officials come from

一、貧賤家庭 

1. Families of poverty.

二、孝子之門

2. Families of filial piety.

三、書香門第 

3. Family of literati.

四、富貴人家

4. Family of wealth.

覺得忠臣出於貧賤家庭的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it’s families of poverty.

貧賤家庭沒有任何忠臣

There are no loyal officials from families of poverty?

好啊回去告訴我爸媽了

Great. I will go back and tell my parents.

那我們忠臣出於孝子之門的請舉手

Raise your hand if you think it’s families of filial piety.

少數的人舉手了 

Some people raised their hands.

很不錯 

That’s nice.

但是大家都是在這種高度 

But we’re at this level.

覺得忠臣出於書香門第的請舉手 

Raise your hand if you think it’s families of literati.

很不錯 

That’s nice.

在場讀書人也不少

There are quite some intellectuals here.

覺得覺得忠臣出於富貴人家的

If you think it’s families of wealth,

就是我們想要當的那個 

the ones we want to be…?

有 

Yes.

雖然很少但是有 

There are a few, but there are hands raised.

答案是什麼呢? 

What’s the answer then?

我想大家都還不知道

I think many people don’t know yet.

答案是孝子之門 

It’s families of filial piety.

不要問我為什麼我也不曉得

Don’t ask me why because I don’t know, either.

我們就來瞭解一下在場該不會有道德滿分的朋友吧?

Let’s check

if there are friends scoring full points in morality.

道德滿分的朋友請舉手

Raise your hand if you obtained full points in morality.

讓我看見一下

Let me see.

很不錯 

Quite nice.

大家為他們鼓鼓掌 

Give them a round of applause.

很厲害 

Impressive.

有沒有道德 

Are there friends scoring

60分的朋友請舉手

60 points in morality?

也很不錯 

That’s also nice.

要繼續保持下去 

Keep up the good work.

讓自己道德越來越好 

Keep improving your morality.

那有沒有道德零分的

Does anyone get zero point in morality?

都沒有

None.

我們今天的在場朋友非常的優秀

The friends here today are brilliant.

那我們從剛才這個小測驗就可以很明顯的發現 

From the little quiz we can see clearly that

亞洲四小龍在他們教育中

when it comes to education, the Four Asian Tigers

非常強調讓學生用背的 

stress on recitation

而不要用想的

rather than contemplation.

透過這種方式

Through this approach,

它們就可以教出一群去政治化的公民 

they can cultivate a group of depoliticized citizens

並且維持認同上的高度一致性

while maintaining a highly consistency in identity.

如果有朋友問我說 

If I were asked

那你會怎麼看最近香港的事情

regarding the recent development in Hong Kong,

我想先告訴各位 

I’d tell you that

對於我們這些要靠著國家成功敘事學來成功的人而言

for us who want to succeed

via the national narratology to succeed,

最重要的事情就是 

the most important thing is

你要相信時間是站在我們這邊的

to believe in that time is on our side.

所以不要心急 

So, don’t haste it.

好好的說故事就是最重要的事情 

Good storytelling is all that matters the most.

如果是我的話

If it were up to me,

在短期間 

in the short term,

我會強調的是激情的故事這個工作

I would focus on the effort of the affective story.

我會強化解放軍即將要鎮壓香港的焦慮 

I would amplify the anxiety of the imminent suppression

by the People’s Liberation Army

強化亞洲金融中心即將被新加坡取代的焦慮

and that of the Asian financial hub

is about to be replaced by Singapore.

我會強化

I will emphasize…



分配問題即將得到改善的興奮 

the excitement of the imminent improvement of distribution issue.

我會強化中美對決中 

I will emphasize the excitement that in the Sino-US showdown,

中國即將勝出的興奮

China shall prevail.

如果再更長遠一點 

In the longer-term,

我會強調的是民主的故事的工作

I will emphasize the effort of the democratic story.

我會依照我的需要 

Depend on my needs…

依照領導者的需要

Depend on the leader’s needs,

重新定義出什麼樣的民 

I will redefine what kind of people

什麼樣的作主方式才是對香港來說最好的

and which mean to take charge

serve the best interest of Hong Kong.

那如果再更長遠一點的話 

In a much longer term,

因為

out of the…

社區營造、

community building,

因為旅遊的需要 

the needs for tourism,

要發起像是

it’s not impossible

新加坡那種歷史記憶計劃也不是不行 

to launch projects like Singapore’s historical memory project.

只要也學習他們

It’s just that we should learn from them

將所有記憶都導向懷舊 

that all memories are directed to memories of the past

並且拒絕所有和中國版本不同的香港史就可以了

while rejecting any version of Hong Kong history

that is different from the China’s version.

如果連這麼棘手的問題都可以靠國家成功敘事學來解決 

If such tough issue can be resolved

through the national narratology to succeed,

那還有什麼事情是難的呢?

what else is difficult?

家庭的問題、政黨的問題、企業的問題 

Issues with family, with political party, with business

也都不會是問題了

are no longer issues anymore.

今天的演講的最後 

In the end of the speech today,

我想要用一個我昨天聽到的故事和各位分享 

I’d like to share with you a story I just heard yesterday.

一個對我來說很有啟發的故事

It’s an inspiring story to me.

這故事是這樣的 

It goes like this…

在一個電影的片場裡面

At a film set,

有一幕戲是需要一群狗跟一隻豬一起完成的

there was an act requiring a group of dogs and a pig.

原本的豬狀態很好 

Originally, the pig’s condition was fine.

但是在下一週要拍的時候就發現 

But when they were going to shoot in the next week,

原本的豬生病了

they found the original pig fell ill.

劇組趕忙找了另外隻豬來頂替 

So, the crew found another pig to replace it in haste.

那些豬一切都非常的相似 

The pig was identical to its predecessor.

唯一不同的是他身上少了斑紋

It’s just that it lacked streaks.

化妝師非常聰明 

The makeup artist was quite clever, using cosmetics

化妝師就趕快用他的化妝品

把那隻豬畫出跟原本的豬一模一樣的斑紋 

to create streaks identical to the predecessor on the pig.

大家都非常的開心 

Everyone was very happy.

然後導演當然也非常的開心

The director was also very happy of course.

這幕戲是要讓那群狗對著那隻豬大叫 

The act was meant to have the dogs to bark at the pig.

非常兇狠的大叫

To bark fiercely.

導演喊了action之後 

Upon action called by the director,

沒想到

to everyone’s surprise,

所有的狗都開始對著那隻豬搖尾巴 

all the dogs started to wag their tails to the pig

全部都在巴結那隻豬尾

all of them were trying to please the pig.

原來

It turned out that

從那些狗的立場來看

from the perspective of the dogs,

前面的這個動物已經不是豬了 

the animal in their eyes was no longer a pig,

牠是一個化了妝的女人

but a woman with makeup.

這個故事對我來說很有啟發 

This is an inspiring story to me

而且完全切中了國家成功敘事學的核心

and perfectly echoes with the core of

the national narratology to succeed.

因為到最後

That’s because in the end,

國家成功敘事學之所以有用、有效的立足點就是

the basis for a national narratology to succeed

to work effectively is that

所有的聽眾會相信的 

all that audience believes in

都不是演員 

is not the actor,

而是角色

but the role itself.

謝謝大家

Thank you.



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Sabino 276

Santa Maria la Ribera

Mexico City

06400